Mitigation

This Myopia Moment provides a brief overview of three lifestyle factors to include in conversations with children and their parents about myopia management.
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This Myopia Moment provides a brief overview of the importance of managing myopia and highlights some of the risk factors to look out for to assist with identifying a child that may develop the condition.
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The complex interactions of retinal, optical and environmental factors in myopia aetiology

Flitcroft DI. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research (2012)
High myopia comes with a heightened risk of cataract, glaucoma, retinal detachment and myopic maculopathy. The article discusses these pathologies and the associated risks.

A Prospective Study of Spherical Refractive Error and Ocular Components Among Northern Irish Schoolchildren (The NICER Study)

Breslin, KMM. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (2013)
A study of white Northern Irish school children and the change in refractive error and axial length (AL) over a 3-year period. Younger children experience greater changes versus teenagers; in comparison to their East Asian peers, they experience a far less dramatic change.

IMI – Clinical Management Guidelines Report

Gifford KL et al. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (2019)
Whitepaper outlining best practice for managing the pre- and progressing myope and gives an overview of evidence-based risk factors, selection of treatment strategies including how to manage myopia in children after diagnosis.

Does sunlight (bright lights) explain the protective effects of outdoor activity against myopia?

Ngo C et al. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics (2013)
A discussion of the possible explanations for why time spent outdoors appear to have a protective effect on emerging myopia, such as light intensity, distance to objects and more.

A review of environmental risk factors for myopia during early life, childhood and adolescence

Ramamurthy D et al. Clinical & Experimental Optometry (2015)
Possible factors for why time spent outdoors has a protective effect on myopia are discussed and risk factors such as near work, birth seasons, smoking and birth order are looked at.

Do progressing myopes show reduced accommodative responses?

Rosenfield M et al. Optometry & Vision Science (2002)
Study looking at whether an increased lag of accommodation is an indication of pre-myopia or accompanies myopia.

IMI – Interventions Myopia Institute: Interventions for Controlling Myopia Onset and Progression Report

Wildsoet CF et al. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (2019)
White paper reviewing evidence behind available clinical interventions for managing myopia: optical, pharmacological, environmental and surgical.

IMI – Myopia Control Reports Overview and Introduction

Wollffsohn JS et al Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (2019)
Report overview summarizing the findings from International Myopia Institute whitepapers looking at definitions of myopia, risk factor identification, treatment guidelines and ethical considerations.

Increased Time Outdoors Is Followed by Reversal of the Long-Term Trend to Reduced Visual Acuity in Taiwan Primary School Students

Wu PC et al. Ophthalmology (2020)
Study of Taiwanese school children and the effect of time spent outdoors on myopia progression.

Time spent in outdoor activities in relation to myopia prevention and control: a meta-analysis and systematic review

Xiong S et al. Acta Ophthalmologica (2017)
Article evaluating current evidence on the impact of time spent outdoors on myopia onset and myopia progression.

Annual changes in refractive errors and ocular components before and after the onset of myopia in Chinese children

Xiang F. Ophthalmology (2012)
A longitudinal study of the onset of myopia in Chinese children and the annual changes in refraction and other ocular components.