Myopia Measurement
What to Measure

This Myopia Moment gives you a brief overview of the measurements to include in an eye examination of a child with myopia or at risk of developing myopia. Please refer to the source references for more details.
PATIENT HISTORY
A DETAILED PATIENT HISTORY SHOULD INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING:
  • Family history of refractive error (parents and siblings).
  • Time spent on near work and using digital devices.
  • Time spent outdoors.
  • Date of myopia onset if present.
  • Any previous treatment for myopia.
STANDARD PROCEDURE

DISTANCE AND NEAR VISION ASSESSMENT (uncorrected and best corrected)

  • Use age-appropriate chart.
  • Record findings for monitoring and follow-up.
OCULAR HEALTH CHECK
  • Internal.
  • External.
REFRACTION (subjective and/or objective)
  • Children at risk for developing myopia may be identified by comparing their refractive status to the normal refraction for their peer group.
ACCOMMODATIVE AND BINOCULAR VISION (BV) TESTING
  • Even before myopia develops, children may show BV disorders.
  • Watch out for reduced accommodative response, increased accommodative lag and higher AC/A ratios.

MYOPIA RELATED MEASUREMENTS (BEST PRACTICE)

CYCLOPLEGIC REFRACTION INCLUDING DROPS

WHY?

For added precision assessing children to monitor any changes more accurately than subjective measures.

HOW?

2 drops of 1% tropicamide or cyclopentolate 5 minutes apart. Refraction 30 to 45 minutes after first drop.

ALTERNATIVE METHOD
Retinoscopy with accommodation well controlled.
FUNDUS CHECK
WHY?
To document if there are early features of myopiarelated pathology.
HOW?
Thoroughly examine central and peripheral retina under dilation, and where possible, record observations using OCT and/or fundus photography.
AXIAL LENGTH MEASUREMENT (AL)
WHY?
To assess risk of developing myopia and to monitor progression.
HOW?
  • Preferably use a non-contact optical biometer
  • Risk scenario: AL is >25 mm with growth of 0.2 to 0.3 mm/year.
TEAR FILM EVALUATION
WHY?
To guide clinical decision making on optical interventions, particularly contact lenses, so that they can be worn comfortably and compliantly.
HOW?
Ask probing questions and use a slit lamp biomicroscopy to examine the anterior eye.

More Myopia Moments

Measurement

Myopia Management Patient Follow-up

Measurement

Using Refractive Error to Monitor Myopia

Prepared by the World Council of Optometry Myopia Management Resource Committee 2021. The World Council of Optometry Myopia Management Standard of Care initiative is supported by a grant from CooperVision.
  • Faghihi H et al. Optical coherence tomographic findings in highly myopic eyes. J Ophthalmic Vis Res. 2010;5:110–121.
  • Flitcroft DI et al. IMI – Defining and Classifying Myopia: A Proposed Set of Standards for Clinical and Epidemiologic Studies. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2019; 60(3): M20-M30.
  • Gifford KL et al. IMI – Clinical Management Guidelines Report. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2019;60(3):M184-M203.
  • Lam C. Diagnostic drugs. In: Rosenfield ML, Logan NS, eds. Optometry: Science, Techniques and Clinical Management. Edinburgh: Butterworth Heinemann; 2009:105–120.
  • Morgan et al: Estimation of ocular axial length from conventional optometric measures. CLAE 43 (2020).

Soft Dual Focus or Multifocal Contact Lenses

Spectacle Lenses for Myopia Control

Orthokeratology

Atropine

When to wear it

Children who are physically active
Ideal for very young wearers
Children disliking glasses and/or inclined to not wearing them full-time

Considerations

Shown to improve confidence and ability to participate in activities.

Typically more availability for astigmats.

No wearing time during waking hours.

Optical correction is still needed.

* Excluding children frequently engaged in water sports.